Improve your skills: beginnings and endings

Posted: June 18, 2011 in writing

1. You can use some techniques a-h in your introduction or conclusion. Match them with example expression i-vii below.

For Introduction

a. Introduce the topic in your own words

b. Say why it is controversial

c. State your position

d. Say how you will deal with the topic


For Conclusion

e. Summarize the arguments you have used

f. Make concessions to opposing arguments

g. State or restate your position

h. Make a recommendation for the future.


i. On balance, therefore there seems to be agreement that …

ii.  I believe that steps should now be taken to ensure …

iii. Although it cannot be denied that …

iv. I shall compare and contrast the views …

v. For these reasons, I feel there is little doubt that …

vi. Recently, there has been considerable discussion of …

vii. I do not find this statement at all convincing …

viii. The implications of this have led some to claim that …


2. Note down more expressions you could use for a-h.

3. Look at the topic of Writing Task 2.

a. What are your feelings about this?

b. Which approach will you choose?

c. Which of a-h above will you use?


1. Introduction

a – vi

b –  viii

c – vii

d – iv


e – i

f – iii

g – v

h – ii


a. A topic of great public debate at present is ….

b. The danger of this, according to … is …

c. To a certain extent I agree with this, but …

d. In this essay, I shall present evidence that …

e. To sum up, it is clear that …

f. Despite the undoubted advantages of this, …

g. In view of the above, I strongly believe that …

h. I would suggest that a change in the law is necessary  in order to …




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